Saturday, March 14, 2020

The Battle of the Alamo

The Battle of the Alamo The Battle of the Alamo was fought on March 6, 1836, between rebellious Texans and the Mexican army. The Alamo was a fortified old mission in the center of the town of San Antonio de Bà ©xar: it was defended by about 200 rebellious Texans, chief among them Lt. Colonel William Travis, famed frontiersman Jim Bowie and former Congressman Davy Crockett. They were opposed by a massive Mexican army led by President/General Antonio Là ³pez de Santa Anna. After a two-week siege, Mexican forces attacked at dawn on March 6: the Alamo was overrun in less than two hours. The Struggle for Texas Independence Texas was originally part of the Spanish Empire in northern Mexico, but the region had been inching towards Independence for some time. English-speaking settlers from the USA had been arriving in Texas since 1821, when Mexico gained its independence from Spain. Some of these immigrants were part of approved settlement plans, like the one managed by Stephen F. Austin. Others were essentially squatters who had come to claim unoccupied lands. Cultural, political and economic differences separated these settlers from the rest of Mexico and by the early 1830s there was much support for independence (or statehood in the USA) in Texas. Texans Take the Alamo The first shots of the revolution were fired on October 2, 1835, in the town of Gonzales. In December, rebellious Texans attacked and captured San Antonio. Many of the Texan leaders, including General Sam Houston, felt that San Antonio was not worth defending: it was too far from the rebels power base in eastern Texas. Houston ordered Jim Bowie, a former resident of San Antonio, to destroy the Alamo and retreat with the remaining men. Bowie decided to remain and fortify the Alamo instead: he felt that with their accurate rifles and a handful of cannons, a small number of Texans could hold the city indefinitely against great odds. Arrival of William Travis and Conflict with Bowie Lt. Colonel William Travis arrived in February with about 40 men. He was outranked by James Neill and, at first, his arrival caused no great stir. But Neill left on family business and the 26-year-old Travis was suddenly in charge of the Texans at the Alamo. Travis problem was this: about half of the 200 or so men there were volunteers and took orders from no one: they could come and go as they wished. These men basically only answered to Bowie, their unofficial leader. Bowie didnt care for Travis and often contradicted his orders: the situation became quite tense. Arrival of Crockett On February 8, legendary frontiersman Davy Crockett arrived at the Alamo with a handful of Tennessee volunteers armed with deadly long rifles. The presence of Crockett, a former Congressman who had become very famous as a hunter, scout, and teller of tall tales, was a great boost to morale. Crockett, a skilled politician, was even able to defuse the tension between Travis and Bowie. He refused a commission, saying that he would be honored to serve as a private. He had even brought his fiddle and played for the defenders. Arrival of Santa Anna and the Siege of the Alamo On February 23, Mexican General Santa Anna arrived at the head of a massive army. He laid siege to San Antonio: the defenders retreated to the relative safety of the Alamo. Santa Anna did not secure all the exits from the city: the defenders could have crept away in the night had they wished: instead, they remained. Santa Anna ordered a red flag flown: it meant that no quarter would be given. Calls for Help and Reinforcements Travis busied himself sending out requests for help. Most of his missives were directed to James Fannin, 90 miles away in Goliad with about 300 men. Fannin did set out, but turned back after logistical problems (and perhaps the conviction that the men in the Alamo were doomed). Travis also begged for help from Sam Houston and the political delegates at Washington-on-the-Brazos, but no help was coming. On March first, 32 brave men from the town of Gonzales showed up and made their way through the enemy lines to reinforce the Alamo. On the third, James Butler Bonham, one of the volunteers, valiantly returned to the Alamo through enemy lines after bearing a message to Fannin: he would die with his comrades three days later. A Line in the Sand? According to legend, on the night of the fifth of March, Travis took his sword and drew a line in the sand. He then challenged anyone who would stay and fight to the death to cross the line. Everyone crossed except for a man named Moses Rose, who instead fled the Alamo that night. Jim Bowie, who by then was in bed with a debilitating illness, asked to be carried over the line. Did â€Å"the line in the sand† really happen? No one knows. The first account of this courageous story was printed much later, and it’s impossible to prove one way or another. Whether there was a line in the sand or not, the defenders knew that they would likely die if they remained. The Battle of the Alamo At dawn on March 6, 1836 the Mexicans attacked: Santa Anna may have attacked that day because he was afraid the defenders would surrender and he wanted to make an example of them. The Texans’ rifles and cannons were devastating as the Mexican soldiers made their way to the walls of the heavily fortified Alamo. In the end, however, there were just too many Mexican soldiers and the Alamo fell in about 90 minutes. Only a handful of prisoners were taken: Crockett may have been among them. They were executed as well, although women and children who were in the compound were spared. Legacy of the Battle of the Alamo The Battle of the Alamo was a costly win for Santa Anna: he lost about 600 soldiers that day, to some 200 rebellious Texans. Many of his own officers were appalled that he did not wait on some cannons that were being brought to the battlefield: a few days bombardment would have greatly softened up the Texan defenses. Worse than the loss of men, however, was the martyrdom of those inside. When word got out of the heroic, hopeless defense mounted by 200 outnumbered and poorly armed men, new recruits flocked to the cause, swelling the ranks of the Texan army. In less than two months, General Sam Houston would crush the Mexicans at the Battle of San Jacinto, destroying a large part of the Mexican army and capturing Santa Anna himself. As they ran into battle, those Texans shouted, Remember the Alamo as a war cry. Both sides made a statement at the Battle of the Alamo. The rebellious Texans proved that they were committed to the cause of independence and willing to die for it. The Mexicans proved that they were ready to accept the challenge and would not offer quarter or take prisoners when it came to those who took up arms against Mexico. Mexicans Supporting Independence One interesting historical note is worth mentioning. Although the Texas Revolution is generally assumed to have been stirred up by Anglo immigrants who moved to Texas in the 1820s and 1830s, this is not entirely the case. There were many native Mexican Texans, known as Tejanos, who supported independence. There were about a dozen or so Tejanos (no one is certain exactly how many) at the Alamo: they fought bravely and died with their comrades. Today, the Battle of the Alamo has achieved legendary status, particularly in Texas. The defenders are remembered as great heroes. Crockett, Bowie, Travis and Bonham all have many things named after them, including cities, counties, parks, schools and more. Even men like Bowie, who in life was a con man, brawler and slave trader, were redeemed by their heroic death at the Alamo. Several movies have been made about the Battle of the Alamo: the two most ambitious were John Waynes 1960 The Alamo and the 2004 film of the same name starring Billy Bob Thornton as Davy Crockett. Neither film is great: the first was plagued by historical inaccuracies and the second just isnt very good. Still, either one will give a rough idea of what the defense of the Alamo was like. The Alamo itself is still standing in downtown San Antonio: its a famous historical site and tourist attraction. Sources: Brands, H.W. Lone Star Nation: the Epic Story of the Battle for Texas Independence. New York: Anchor Books, 2004.Flores, Richard R. The Alamo: Myth, Public History, and the Politics of Inclusion. Radical History Review 77 (2000): 91–103. Print.-. Memory-Place, Meaning, and the Alamo. American Literary History 10.3 (1998): 428–45. Print.Fox, Anne A., Feris A. Bass, and Thomas R. Hester. The Archaeology and History of Alamo Plaza. Index of Texas Archaeology:  Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State (1976). Print.Grider, Sylvia Ann. How Texans Remember the Alamo. Usable Pasts. Ed. Tuleja, Tad. Traditions and Group Expressions in North America: University Press of Colorado, 1997. 274–90. Print.Henderson, Timothy J. A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and its War with the United States. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007.Matovina, Timothy. San Fernando Cathedral and the Alamo: Sacred Place, Public Ritual, and Construction of Meaning. Journal of Ritual Studies 12.2 (19 98): 1–13. Print.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

The effect of salt temperature on ice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The effect of salt temperature on ice - Essay Example These bonds hold the molecules together forming the solid ice (Churchill et al). The salt ions dissolved alter the existing hydrogen bonding in the solid ice and this has an effect on the normal freezing point of the ice causing the temperatures to drop. In this experiment we are going to determine the effect of salt on the temperature of ice. In the first bowl, when the salt is added on the ice, at first nothing happens but after sometime, the temperature of the ice drops before the ice starts melting. The ice the melts gradually and the temperature increases. In the second bowl, the ice starts melting at 0oC a.nd melts gradually as temperatures increases. When salt is added to ice, it is able to lower the freezing point of any water molecules that are on the surface of the ice and this prevents it from freezing again hence helping to melt the ice surrounding the solid ice. Water that is pure in nature has its freezing point fixed at 0oC while salt is able to melt down ice to a temperature of about

Monday, February 10, 2020

Sum up what you learned from these articles Essay

Sum up what you learned from these articles - Essay Example Islam has existed in Central Asia for centuries. After being conquered by Turkish Arabs, the native cultures converted to Islam. Yet it was not a pure Islam, but an Islam mixed with local customs. Another issue that impacted Islam in Central Asia was the Soviet occupation. Damrel suggests: The understanding of what happened to Islam and Muslim society under first Tsarist and then Soviet domination is an important part of modern Uzbek self-perception. According to a well-known historical paradigm, the overwhelmingly Muslim communities of Central Asia were subjugated by a European colonial power that attempted to discredit, eviscerate and indeed expunge Islam from culture and society. The Soviets, in contrast, launched a full-scale assault on Islamic institutions and practices in the mid-1920s, a campaign that intensified dramatically during Stalin’s â€Å"revolution from above† and the purges of the late 1920s and 1930s. Although oppression is not favorable, the result was positive. Due to the oppression, Central Asia has formed its own brand of Islam. While it might be repressive to some, the Islam in Central Asia is not as threatening as in neighboring Afghanistan. Plus, Central Asia has formed their religion and culture in the meantime. It is much better than having another occupation. The announced goals of the new university vividly portray a state vision of Islam that intersects both with issues of nation-building in Central Asia and with a larger global Muslim discourse about the nature of Islam itself. (Damrel) mazhab), one of the four main branches of Sunni Islam (the other three being the Shafi’, Hanbali’i, and Maliki’i mazhabs). The standard argument is that Sunni Islam ultimately prevailed over Shia Islam in the region because it was better able to accommodate local practices and traditions, including eventually Sufism, a mystical and popularized form of Islamic worship that is very open to

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Training Manual Focusing On Financial Valuation Essay Example for Free

Training Manual Focusing On Financial Valuation Essay Any company, especially one that has recently gone public, needs a manual on financial systems that will work hand in hand with its overall business strategy and its structural organizational strategy. In the case of Strident Marks, which is now a public company, valuation in terms of business and actual return on investment increased as the responsibility of profitability intensifies with the presence of stockholders. It is important that the rules and the standards of valuation are set out clearly, as well as the process needed to achieve these rules. Valuation in investment can be divided into actual return on investment in profit, and perceived return on investment in time, efficiency, and output. The training manual should have separate areas that address these two, as well as a consolidating guide that will allow these factors to work together for the good of the company and the shareholders. The profit valuation is the simplest tool as it entails only a cost-benefit analysis and a projected profit versus expense report. Since it is quantifiable, the gains and losses are easily seen and departments can easily account for any changes in policy, as well as in meeting and exceeding targets. Quality returns on investment, on the other hand, are difficult to value and justify. For example, the implementation of an information system cannot be quantified into concrete results in terms of profit, but only to the benefits to the employee, the shareholder, and of course, the client. A method that can be used is to assign actual, numerical values on a grading scale that will allow these factors to be valued. The financial department is crucial in this asect as this division can quantify the value of a perceived benefit versus the actual value of the company as a whole. The financial department can provide a more accurate numerical assessment as opposed to a haphazard assignment. This branch can also ascertain the feasibility of an investment versus the benefits to be gained from it. References Financial Regulation — Good Rules and Bad. (1993). World Bank Development Brief, 12. Retrieved January 17, 2007 from http://www.worldbank.org/html/dec/ Publications/Briefs/DB12.html

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

12 Angery Men :: essays research papers

Twelve Angry Men   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Sometimes in life your professions reflect on your personalities. Twelve Angry Men is an example of where this occurs. Twelve men are brought together in a room to decide whether a boy is guilty of killing his father. Whether they brought good or bad qualities from their profession, they all affected the outcome. The leadership skills of Courtney Vance, the compassion of Dorian Harwood, and the opinionated Tony Danza affected the actions and decisions in the jury room.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Courtney Vance is a high school football coach; his position in the jury room is a foreman. On the football field, Vance acts as a mediator, a leader, and an organizer. As a foreman for this trial, Vance definitely carries all those traits into the jury room with him. If it were not for Vance, there would not have been any order in the jury room. He acts as a coach in the jury room as he formed fine lines of respect. He acts as a mediator for all of the arguments that went on in the jury room. Every time, Vance is there to calm everyone down and gain back order in the room. His leadership skills also shine in the jury room as well. He controls and leads every discussion, speaking order, voting, and demonstration. Vance takes on the leading role and handles it well. He also brings organization into the jury room by organizing the juries, the discussions, and the votes. With the excellent traits that Vance brings into the jury room, he allows the trial to run smooth ly and effectively.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Dorian Harwood’s profession as nurse also shapes his actions in the jury room. In the jury room, he acts with compassion and respect. As a nurse he does the same. His compassion lies in caring for another. He relates that to the trial by thinking of the boy as one of his patients. He wants him to have a fair chance at life, and therefore wants him to have a fair trial. In the jury room, he acts with respect because he is very unsure about the case, and really does not know how he feels about things. So when it is his turn to talk he passes to hear the others before he makes the wrong assumption. With these actions he shows a lot of respect for not only the boy on trial, but also to the other juries.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Video games do not cause violence

Video games do not cause violence BY jur525 Video Games: Beneficial or Cause Violence Do modern video games contribute to the increasing level of Violence that is all around us? Can we really attribute the shootings and bombings we see on the news to the increased violence and realism in video games ? These are the questions reporters should be asking. Instead the first question out of their mouths If the suspect Is an adolescent will most certainly be ‘ Was he addicted to playing violent video games ? ‘ If the answer is yes, they look no farther.They should Investigate the suspect's background to see If he was violent before he started playing games. Then look at the studies done on violent video games and they will find that 98. 7% of all teens regardless of gender have played violent games(Klrsh, Steven J. ). What Is truly remarkable is that less than one percent of all teens go out and commit a violent act. Therefore this will prove that it is the violence in the susp ect not the violence in the game that has led to so many deaths. The findings of many studies prove it is society not video games who has let the gamer down.It is society who has given them a ‘bad wrap'. The media and most continued to drop as the sales of violent video games has climbed dramatically. Researchers have considered role playing games a double edge sword. They say they are excellent teaching tools but the violent ones teach violent conditioning. This is NOT so! According to Christopher Ferguson of Setson University and the independent researcher Cheryl Olson in her study published in Springer's Journal of Youth and Adolescences it is exactly the opposite.Their research found that playing games actually had a very calming effect on the outh's with attention deficit symptoms and helped to reduce their aggressive and bullying behavior. They also stated that video games could be helpful when used to distract and relax children and adolescence during painful medical pr ocedures. If you decide to do research on your own be careful. Some studies have carefully rigged the results to only give the answers they want to prove correct.They recorded only the data the showed they were right, that the games can and often does lead to aggressive and violent behavior. If their findings did not show the prime reason being aggressive onditioning and that being exposed to this violence in the games was the prominent reason for the increase it was left out. You also need to check the background of the adolescents they Did they carefully choose only those adolescents that already had a tendency told behavior even before they played the games.Both these facts could greatly change the outcome of the study. When you are listening to the media take into account they are giving attention grabbing headlines and if portraying video games in a bad light gets them the audience hey crave they will say or do anything to achieve their goal. The media loves to make outrageous claims that video games either â€Å"inspired† or â€Å"trained† the suspect to commit these violent acts.They use the rigged studies as their backup even calling them in to act as experts on the subject. For instance Guy Porter and Vladan Starcevic who claim that â€Å"while playing video games outwardly appears to be an innocuous activity, the limited data available suggest playing video games may be related to aggressive and/or antisocial behavior. So next time you hear about a video game â€Å"causing† an adolescent to â€Å"commit† violence remember look up your facts yourself.You may see that while some psychologists want to include video game addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for mental disorders most doctors do not agree. Most can see that video games do have considerable potential to enhance the lives of all adolescents. I believe that violent video games directly cause aggression. I also believe gaming is a very social activity which when given the chance can greatly improve adolescent's lives. Gaming is becoming a common way for the adolescent to communicate with the outside world.The gamer could very well have friends all over the world as I do. Society and the Media need to deal with the violent aggression in the adolescents that have shown a predisposition for such violence. That until this is done the real cause of all the shootings won't be addressed and handled accordingly. Video Games Do Not Cause Violence Video games have come a long way since they were first introduced in 1967. In addition to the impressive improvement in graphics, the increase of the violent content has become quite the hot topic amongst parents and politicians alike. The most popular aspect is whether or not violent video games inhibit aggressive behavior. Early research that suggested there was a link between the two has been deemed problematic. However, in recent studies â€Å"research has not found that children who play violent video games are more violent than other kids, nor harmed in any other identifiable fashion.† (Ferguson, 2011) Violent video games do not lead to violence in society because they improve other skills, many other factors heavily contribute to making society violent, and they are a tool for social interaction. Of course the most obvious skill that video games improve would be visual skills. Video games allow gamers to be more attune to their surroundings and â€Å"greatly enhance th e ability to effectively distribute attention over space and time, as well as the number of items that can be attended.† (Achtman, 2008)A press release from the American Psychological Association declares â€Å"Playing video games, including violent shooter games, may boost children’s learning, health, and social skills. † Playing simulated war games such as â€Å"Call of Duty: improves spatial navigation, reasoning, memory, and perception. These types of games also inhibit enhanced abilities to problem solve. Without a doubt, the contents of today’s media are constantly on display for any man, woman, or child to see.Specifically, television, bringing the violent filled news and movies to any home with an open outlet. The homicide rate has doubled after television was introduced in the U. S. (Faria, 2013) Exposure to this form of media and the glorification of violent behavior on television has a great influence on society. Another factor to consider when reviewing the violence in society is the biological factors and environment one is exposed to. Heritage and temperament, and parental rejection-acceptance are considered common underlying causes of anger and aggression.(Blake & Harmin, 2007)Additionally, peer pressure can try to influence behaviors or try to influence thinking or values. Peer pressure can leave children with an enormous amount of stress which can lead to aggressive and violent behavior. At the same time, video games are a great tool for social interaction. Games such as â€Å"World of Warcraft† connect players to a virtual world where literally millions of other gamers are playing at the same time. These games allow you to talk to these other players via chat, either text or voice, and sometimes both.For that reason, gamers develop friendships online and as a result, keep away from drugs and other negative activities presented to them outside of the game, Also, the social aspects of the game promote teamwork and cooperation. (Frostling-Henningsson, 2009) Furthermore, the opportunity to strike up conversation presents itself in a less stressful manner so gamers are able to improve their social skills in this form as well. Besides that, with players from all around the world, English is a second tongue to many gamers.Chatting online with other gamers presents the opportunity to practice their language skills and pick up on â€Å"slang† words to help them become more fluent in their speech. To that end, video games do not cause violence in society because they improve cognitive skills, other media forms are more correlated with aggression, and they are a building block in social connectedness. Psychological studies purporting to show a connection between exposure to violent video games and aggression do not prove that any connection is evident.Any effects that may be displayed are indistinguishable from the effects of other types of media. (Brown, 2011) Video games have transformed the way generations can learn and have opened up a whole new world to the socially isolated. Moreover, video games have simply become society’s scapegoat when it comes to placing the blame for violence and aggressive behavior. When tragedy strikes, people want answers and will join forces in placing the blame. In the end, video games are merely a form of entertainment, as they were intended to be.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Essay about Sir Robert Peel - 882 Words

â€Å"Police are people and the people are the police† CJA 214 January 9, 2012 Jeremy Leach In Bury, Lancashire, on February 5, 1788, the â€Å"Father† of modern day policing was born. Through his work and studies of public service, Sir Robert Peel developed principles and policies that have impacted what is considered modern day policing. He created what is commonly known as the Peelian Principles. While Sir Robert Peel’s principles still stand out in law enforcement policies today, nine points of policing stand true today. Sir Robert Peel attended Harrow School and Christ Church in Oxford, where he studied classics and mathematics. He was raised to be a politician. At the age of twenty one, his father bought him a parliamentary seat of†¦show more content†¦Police officers are held accountable for everything they do. The public is always watching. Police officers are members of the communities they work in. They are just paid to protect and serve their neighbors within that community. In addition to developing principles in order to maintain safety of citizens, Peel also developed nine principles of policing. All these principles are still used today to keep order. The nine principles are as follows: 1. The basic mission for whom the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder. 2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon the public approval of police actions. 3. Police must secure the willing co-operation of the public in voluntary observation of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public. 4. The degree of co-operation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force. 5. Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion, but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law. 6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the exercise of persuasion, a dvice, and warning is found to be insufficient. 7. Police, at all times should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the publicShow MoreRelatedSir Robert Peel Essay847 Words   |  4 PagesSir Robert Peel Review Danny Granillo CJA 214 September 27th, 2011 Jason Hillis Sir Robert Peel Review American policing has been around for years and is extremely likely to be around for hundreds of generations to come. Very early policing and punishments could include public humiliation and even torture. Times have changed since the beginnings of police tactics now it is incredibly uncommon to see public humiliation due to a crime. 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